Noun and Number

Knowing singular and plural and forming the noun singular to plural has always been a concern to structuring the sentence correctly. Hence, it becomes imperative to understand nouns and numbers. (noun and number)

Therefore, here I shall be shedding the light on this subject explicitly.

Compound noun (noun and number)

Compound nouns are pluralized by adding s with the main word.

SingularPlural
Brother-in-lawBrothers-in-law
Bed-roomBed-rooms
Commander-in-chief Commanders-in-chief
Step-daughter Step-daughters
Maid-servant Maid-servants
Member of parliament Member of parliaments

Some words are both sides pluralizes (noun and number)

SingularPlural
ManservantMenservants
Woman conductor Women conductors
Knight Templar Knights Templars
Lord justice Lord justice

There are twelve nouns, ending in f or Fe, which drop the F or FE and add VES.

SingularPluralSingularPlural
CalfCalvesLifeLives
HalfHalvesLeafLeaves
WifeWivesSelfSelves
ThiefThieveKnifeKnives
WolfWolvesShelfShelves
LoafLoavesSheafSheaves
Note: Hoof, scarf, and wharf take either s or ves.

Exception, ending in f or fe pluralized adding s. (noun and number)

SingularPluralSingularPlural
BeliefBeliefsProofProofs
ChiefChiefsRoofRoofs
AliffCliffsSafeSafes

Some Latin words ending in us are pluralized by changing us to i. (noun and number)

SingularPluralSingularPlural
RadiusRadiiLocusLoci
FocusFociSyllabusSyllabi
GeniusGeni

Some Greek words ending in on are pluralized by changing on to a.

SingularPluralSingularPlural
PhenomenonPhenomenaCriterionCriteria

Some Greek words ending in is are pluralized by changing is to es.

SingularPluralSingularPlural
AnalysisAnalysesBasisBases
CrisisCrisesThesisTheses
HypothesisHypothesesParenthesisParentheses

Following eight nouns are pluralized by changing inside vowels in them.

SingularPluralSingularPlural
ManMenMouseMice
WomanWomenLouseLice
FootFeetGooseGeese
ToothTeethDormouseDormice

Some nouns have two plurals with different meanings.

SingularPlural
BrotherBrothers (Sons of the same parents)
BrotherBrethren (Members of a society or community)
ClothCloths (Unstitched cloth)
ClothClothes (Stiched clothes-garments)
DieDie (Stamps used for printing or coining)
Dice (Small cubes used in games)
IndexIndexes (Tables of contents in a book)
Indices (Signs used in algebra)

Some Latin words ending in um are pluralized by dropping um and adding a.

SingularPluralSingularPlural
AddendumAddendaOvumOva
AgendumAgendaMemorandumMemoranda
DatumDataErratumErrata
DictumDictaStratumStrata
Nowadays, Agenda and Data are used in the singular as well as in plural

Some Latin words which are pluralized by adding s only.

SingularPluralSingularPlural
AsylumAsylumsForumForums
MuseumMuseumsPendulumPendulums
PetroleumPetroleumsFormulaFormulae or Formulas

Nouns with one meaning in singular and another meaning in plural.

SingularPlural
Good (अच्छा-Pleasant)Goods (सामान-Items for sale)
Mark (निशान-A small area on the surface of something that is damaged, dirty)Marks (अंक-Point, Figure, numbers)
Right (सही-Correct)Rights (अधिकार-The legal authority)
Beside (बगल में-At the side of, next to)Besides (के अलावा-In addition to)
After (के बाद में-Following in time)Afters (Dessert-Sweet food eaten at the end of a meal)
Green (हरा/अनुभवहीन-Color name/Inexperience)Greens (हरी सब्ज़ियां-Vegetables)
Manner (तौर – तरीका- The way in which something is done)Manners (शिष्टाचार-Ways of behaving)
New (नया-Recently created)News (समाचार-information)
Air (हवा)Airs (अकड़-(swagger) to walk or behave in a way that shows that you are very confident and think that you are important
Color (रंग-APPEARANCE)Colors (the official flag of a country, ship, or military group)
Glass (कांच- A hard, transparent material)Glasses (चश्मा- A pair of glasses)
Water (पानी-A clear liquid, without color or taste)Waters (sea)
Sand (रेत-a substance that consists of very small grains of rock, found on beaches and in deserts)Sands (रेगिस्तान-Desert)
Wood (लकड़ी-A hard substance that forms the branches and trunks of trees)Woods (Forest)
Iron (लोहा-hard metal)Irons (हथकड़ी-handcuffs)
Fruit (Fruit)Fruits (rewards/result)
Paper (कागज़-thin, flat material made from crushed wood or cloth, used for writing, printing, or drawing on)Papers (दस्तावेज़-Official documents)
Force (बल-Physical, strength, or power)Forces (सेना-Police forces)
Arm (बांह-Body part)Arms (हथियारों-Weapons)
Quarter (1/4)Quarters (आवास-residence)
Time (समय-minutes, days, years, etc.)Times (बार-Repetition)
Work (काम-An activity, such as a job)Works (रचनाएँ-Something that a person has created or written)
Custom (रीति-A belief that has been established for a long time)Customs (Tax -money paid to the government when you take particular goods from one country to another)
Rich (धनी-having a lot of money or valuable possessions)Riches (धन-a large amount of money or valuable possessions)

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