The case indicates the grammatical functions of nouns and pronouns according to their relation with the words in a sentence.
There are four types of cases:
- Nominative / subjective
- When a noun or pronoun is used as a subject in a sentence. It is called a subjective case.
- When a noun or pronoun is used as an object in a sentence. It is called an objective case.
- When a noun and pronoun is used to address a person or group in a sentence. It is called a vocative case.
- When a noun or pronoun is used to show possession or ownership in a sentence. It is called possessive case
Vocative case example:
- John, come here!
- Lady and gentleman, I am going to tell.
Use ‘s with a singular noun that does not end in ‘s’
- Mohan’s book
- Ramu’s bike
- Rita’s dress
- Goldi’s watch
Space, time, weight
- A day’s leave
- well’s water
- In a year’s time
- A pound’s weight
- A foot’s length
- India’s heroes
- Natur’s law
- At duty’s call
- At death’s door
- India’s population
- At his finger’s ends
- For mercy’s sake
- To his heart’s content
- As his wit’s end
- A boat’s crew
- At a stone’s throw
If there are hissing sounds (sh or s) ending a word, use apostrophe without ‘s.
- Boys’ car
- Girls’ hostel
- Workers’ demands
- Doctors’ advice
- Hens’ egg
No apostrophe ‘s with non-living things
Use an apostrophe with the last word in a compound word.
- Governor-general’s instructions
- Commander-in-chief’s orders
- My son-in-law’s shop
- Ram and son’s shop
- Rajiv and Sanjay’s mother was Indira
- Sardar Patel, the iron man’s statue
- Narendra modi, the PM of India’s speech
- Ram and Shyam’s house (one house)
- Ram’s and Shyam’s wife (separate house)
- Ram and Shyam’s wife (Same wife for both)