The case indicates the grammatical functions of nouns and pronouns according to their relation with the words in a sentence.

There are four types of cases:

  1. Nominative / subjective
  2. Objective
  3. Vocative
  4. Possessive
  1. When a noun or pronoun is used as a subject in a sentence. It is called a subjective case.
  2. When a noun or pronoun is used as an object in a sentence. It is called an objective case.
  3. When a noun and pronoun is used to address a person or group in a sentence. It is called a vocative case.
  4. When a noun or pronoun is used to show possession or ownership in a sentence. It is called possessive case

Vocative case example:

  1. John, come here!
  2. Lady and gentleman, I am going to tell.

Possessive case

Apostrophe ‘s’

Use ‘s with a singular noun that does not end in ‘s’

Living things

  • Mohan’s book
  • Ramu’s bike
  • Rita’s dress
  • Goldi’s watch

Space, time, weight

  • A day’s leave
  • well’s water
  • In a year’s time
  • A pound’s weight
  • A foot’s length

Personified Object

  • India’s heroes
  • Natur’s law
  • At duty’s call
  • At death’s door
  • India’s population

With phrases

  • At his finger’s ends
  • For mercy’s sake
  • To his heart’s content
  • As his wit’s end
  • A boat’s crew
  • At a stone’s throw

If there are hissing sounds (sh or s) ending a word, use apostrophe without ‘s.

  • Boys’ car
  • Girls’ hostel
  • Workers’ demands
  • Doctors’ advice
  • Hens’ egg

No apostrophe ‘s with non-living things

No apostrophe 's with non-living things, By Alok Pandey an English teacher

Use an apostrophe with the last word in a compound word.

  • Governor-general’s instructions
  • Commander-in-chief’s orders
  • My son-in-law’s shop
  • Ram and son’s shop
  • Rajiv and Sanjay’s mother was Indira
  • Sardar Patel, the iron man’s statue
  • Narendra modi, the PM of India’s speech
  • Ram and Shyam’s house (one house)
  • Ram’s and Shyam’s wife (separate house)
  • Ram and Shyam’s wife (Same wife for both)